- The Mexican-American War
- A war between America and Mexico that would lead to a lot of westward land being acquired. This would allow the north and south to argue over the expansion of slavery out west.
- Fugitive Slave Act
- Allowed slave owners to go north and return escaped slaves to the south.
- Underground Railroad
- A network of secret routes and safe places to help runaway slaves escape north.
- John Brown
- Abolitionist that fought violently against slavery.
- Bleeding Kansas
- When Kansas was given the opportunity to choose if it wanted slavery for itself many abolitionists and pro-slavery groups moved there and resulted in bloodshed for years.
- Dred Scott v. Sandford
- Court case that established that black people had no rights and slaves were essentially property.
Civil War Begins
- The Three S’s are simple way to remember reasons the Civil War started.
- State’s Rights
- The War was fought for many reasons, but according to Lincoln and many more it was about keeping the country together.
- Fort Sumter
- First shots of the Civil War.
- Bull Run / Manassas
- The first major battle of the Civil War. The North lost even though they had more soldiers. It proved to the North that this war wasn’t going to be quick or easy.
- Antietam / Sharpsburg
- First major battle on union soil. Bloodiest day in American History with 22,000 casualties.
- Considered one of the most important battles of the Civil War. 3 days long, thousands dead. The South invaded the North, but ultimately returned to the South and would never return.
- The Siege of Vicksburg took 6 weeks, and the Southerners eventually gave up. The loss allowed the North to control the Mississippi River and divided the South into two pieces.
- Appomattox Courthouse
- General Ulysses S. Grant accepted General Robert E. Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Court House.
People of the War
- William Carney
- African American served in Civil War and was awarded the Medal of Honor 37 years later.
- Phillip Bazaar
- Hispanic awarded the Medal of Honor during the Battle of Fort Fisher in the Civil War.
- Lincoln’s Election
- After Lincoln’s election slave states begin seceding from the union.
- Emancipation Proclamation
- A statement from Lincoln granted freedom to slaves in the southern states that were currently fighting the Union.
- Gettysburg Address
- A famous speech given by Lincoln that explains that the people in the Battle of Gettysburg did not die for no reason and that we will continue to fight until the war is won.
- Technology played a major role in the North’s win because Lincoln was able to use the North’s manufacturing capacity to out produce the South.
- John Wilkes Booth shot and killed Lincoln before he could help rebuild the south. Reconstruction looked much different then what Lincoln had planned out.
- Southerner that worked hard to prevent the Civil War, but allow the Southern states to keep their way of life.
- President of the Confederacy
- Later elected as the President of the South.
- Robert E. Lee (South)
- Thought Robert E. Lee loved his country and didn’t care for slavery, he chose fight for the South because he was loyal to his home — Virginia.
- Ulysses S. Grant (North)
- Selected to be the General of the North after he had much success against Lee.
- Stonewall Jackson (South)
- Shot and killed by his own men early in the war. His death was seen as a huge loss and a possible reason the south could not win.
- William Tecumseh Sherman (North)
- Sherman’s march is a term given to the march he made to the sea from Atlanta Georgia where he engaged in Total War. Total War employs the use of destroying private property of people who are thought to help the enemy.
Blue (Soldier Uniforms)
Gray (Soldier Uniforms)
Ideas how to rebuild the South after the Civil War and allow them to become states in the United States again. A major problem for the North was to figure out a way to bring the Southern states back into the country.
- 10% Plan
- Lincolns Plan was quick and easy to allow the Southern states to come back into the Union because he wanted the problem resolved.
- 10% of voters must swear loyalty
- Must abolish slavery
- Wade-Davis Bill
- Majority of White men must swear loyalty
- Must abolish slavery
- Former Confederate volunteers cannot vote or
- Johnson Plan
- Majority of White Men must swear loyalty
- Must ratify 13th Amendment
- Former confederate officials may vote and hold office
- Reconstruction Act
- Required all Southern States to Ratify the 14th Amendment (CITIZENS).
- Must disband state governments
- Must write new constitutions
- African Americans must be allowed to vote
- 13th Amendment (FREE)
- Slavery shall not be exist with the United States.
- 14th Amendment (CITIZENS)
- Granted the right that all slaves, and others born in America, become citizens.
- 15th Amendment (VOTE)
- Gave all men the right to vote, including former slaves.
The New South
- After the Civil War, when slavery was outlawed, a system of sharing crops grew between former slaves and farm owners. Former slaves worked and got some of the crops and the rest went to the owner.
- Northerners that moved to the south looking to make money.
- Southerners that supported the north during the war.
- Homestead Act
- Gave settlers of land in the west 160 acres if you improved the land and lived there for 5 years.
- Any adult who had never taken up arms against the U.S. government could apply. Women, blacks, and immigrants were eligible.
- Dawes Act
- Was created to give land in the west to Indians and lift them out of poverty and bring them into American Society.
- Also took large sections of Indian lands and allowed for white settlment.
- Morrill Act
- Allowed western states to sell federal land so that they could use the money to build colleges.